What causes Urinary Incontinence?
Below are a list of conditions and diseases that contribute and/or cause urinary incontinence:
- urinary tract or vaginal infections
- effects of medications
- weakness of certain muscles in the pelvis
- blocked urethra due to an enlarged prostate
- Diseases and disorders involving the nervous system muscles (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, spinal cord injury and stroke).
- some types of surgery
- pregnancy and childbirth
- overactive bladder
- weakness of the muscles holding the bladder in place
- weakness of the sphincter muscles surrounding the urethra
- birth defects
- enlarged prostate
- spinal cord injuries
Multiple factors have been found to be associated with urinary incontinence, yet the leading culprits of incontinence have been neurologic disease, prostatic disease, and obstetric factors.
Studies have found that pregnancy, mode of delivery and parity (the number of children a woman has had) are all factors that can increase the risk of incontinence. Women who delivered babies (via cesarean section or vaginal delivery) have much higher rates of stress incontinence than women who never delivered a baby. Women who developed incontinence during pregnancy or shortly after delivery have higher risk of sustained incontinence than those who did not. Increased parity (having more babies) also increases the risk.
Age is also known to be a factor. As the human body ages, muscle loss and weakness occur and the urinary tract is not spared. Menopausal women can also suffer from urine loss as a result of decreased estrogen levels. Interestingly, replacement estrogen has not been found to help the symptoms. Many medications have been associated with urinary incontinence. These include: diuretics, estrogen, benzodiazepines, tranquilizers, antidepressants, hypnotics, and laxatives. Poor overall general health has been associated with incontinence. Specifically, diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure, smoking history, Parkinson’s, back problems, obesity, Alzheimer’s, and pulmonary disease have all been associated with incontinence.
What are the different types of urinary incontinence?
Stress urinary incontinence: Stress incontinence is leakage that occurs when there is an increase in abdominal pressure caused by physical activities like coughing, laughing, sneezing, lifting, straining, getting out of a chair or bending over. The major risk factor for stress incontinence is damage to pelvic muscles that may occur during pregnancy and childbirth.
Urge urinary incontinence: Also referred to as “overactive bladder,” this type of incontinence is usually accompanied by a sudden, strong urge to urinate and an inability to get to the toilet in time. Frequently, some patients with urge incontinence may leak urine with no warning. Risk factors for urge incontinence include aging, obstruction of urine flow, inconsistent emptying of the bladder and a diet high in bladder irritants (such as coffee, tea, colas, chocolate and acidic fruit juices).
Mixed urinary incontinence: Mixed incontinence is a combination of urge and stress incontinence.
Overflow urinary incontinence: Overflow incontinence occurs when the bladder does not empty properly and the amount of urine produced exceeds the capacity of the bladder. It is characterized by frequent urination and dribbling. Poor bladder emptying occurs if there is an obstruction to flow or if the bladder muscle cannot contract effectively.